Monday, November 29, 2004

Peru history

Peru history
Peru has been inhabited from a very long time. Peruvian archeologist say that they have found evidence of cultures dating back to 10,000 BCE. Picture of ancient peru starts to be somewhat defined after the chavin culture around 500 BC.chavin was followed by other important cultures like the Huari, chimu ,moche,paracas etc till the incas.The chavins were very famous for there pottery and textile, similarly all the other cultures had there own specialties.

Inca was the last great civilization of peru. They began to expand their influence in the twelfth century and in the early sixteenth century, they exercised control over more territory than any other people had done in South American history. The empire consisted of over one million individuals, spanning a territory stretching from Ecuador to northern Chile. The height of their reign in the 15th century came to a brutal end in 1535 when the Spanish conquistadors took over their territory.

Incas are famous for there gold. Their love for precious metals was esthetic, for neither Incas nor their subjects needed to buy anything. It was said that when the spanish came to cusco, the temple walls where covered with gold and there a garden with trees and animals made out of gold. Incans spoke quechua language, which is still spoken in the andes.They didn't use wheels,didn't have a written script.

The Spanish conquistadors lead by francisco pizzaro conquered the incas in 1533. peru was under spanish rule till the "knight of andes" Jose De san martin defeated the Spanish and liberated peru. peru declared independence in 1821. After many years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980,after some insignificant presidents peru elected Alberto Fujimori's as the president in 1990.fujimori ushered in a new era in peru's history. He resigned and a caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001.Alejandro TOLEDO was elected as the new head of government.

Jose de San Martin, Francisco Pizzaro & Alberto Fujimori are the 3 people who have left a mark in Peru’s history.

Francisco pizarro was the man who defeated the incas. He defeated them, defeated there 30,000 strong army with his 200 soldiers. The audacity that he had made him the conqueror who conquered the largest amount of territory of any military leader.

Jose de san martin was one of the principal liberators of South America .He liberated peru, argentina, chile. A proud ruler, at the height of his success he relinquished his power to Simon Bolivar after a historic meeting in 1822. He could have going to head and become a ruler or joined Bolivar in the liberation efforts. But he understood that he and Bolivar are two different peoples and also recognized the need for an united army to liberate the rest of the countries. So he relinquished his power and left the liberation to simon Bolivar.

I got the same answers from everyone whenever I talked politics to anyone in peru. Everybody was disenchanted with the current president and everybody admired fujimori and wish there was another president like him, or himself again.

Fujimori was the son of Japanese immigrants who overcame poverty and prejudice to become the president of Peru. When he became president the country's economy was in a state of collapse and peru was in the midst of a guerrilla war and seemed destined to fall into the hands of the Sendero Luminoso and the MRTA terrorist movements.

Fujimori turned out to be an energetic ruler and against all expectations he defeated the terrorists, stopped hyperinflation in its tracks and transformed the economy. He reduced the inflation from a staggering 7000% to 18% . When a war with Ecuador seemed likely, Fujimori settled a centuries old dispute and made a permanent peace.

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